THE MAIN CAUSES OF LAKE SEVAN WATER POLLUTION AND THERE SOLUTIONS
PROBLEMS AND SITUATION IN ARMENIA
- Armenia is rich in water resources, but the purity and content of the water has become alarming
- There is currently no biological wastewater treatment in Armenia. In the settlements of the Republic of Armenia, either the wastewater is not treated or, at best, only solid waste is cleaned.
- Water used by the people, which contains detergents, medicines and excrement flows into the groundwater, and then returns from there as irrigation or drinking water.
- The number of various buildings (restaurants, hotels, workshops) that do not have proper sewerage infrastructure is growing. The water used in those places is poured directly into rivers, and in some places directly into groundwater, not even passing through the soil layer.
- The problem of drainage threatens the ecological condition of Lake Sevan and the rivers and groundwater of the Republic of Armenia. Which have strategic importance for Armenia.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEMS OF WATER POLLUTION IN LAKE SEVAN, THAT WE NEED TO SOLVE
1.COMMUNAL- HOUSEHOLD DRAINAGE
Communal and domestic wastewater is not treated before discharging into rivers (direct pollution) or drainage systems (indirect pollution), after which the wastewater is discharged into Lake Sevan.
There are 3 treatment plants in Sevan, located in Gavar, Martuni Vardenis. Sewage from cities is collected and then treated.
As a result, poorly treated wastewater is discharged into rivers and groundwater. Not all communities in the Sevan basin have a sewerage system.
The total length of the network is 50.4 km, and the total volume of domestic wastewater discharged into the sewerage networks is 4.2 million m3 / year.
Due to the lack of a sewerage network in the settlements of Gegharkunik region, the residents use sewer wells in their yards.
According to the population statistics, the "total volume of wastewater disposal" of Gavaraget, Martuni Masrik rivers, is 2672.1 m3 / day. In July 2018 there was a rapid growth of algae.
The lake "bloomed" with blue-green algae of the genus Anabaena. During the "flowering" period the maximum indicators of phytoplankton were registered. The number of algae is 16,528,000 cells / l, the biomass is 66.1 g / m3.
2.PUBLIC SERVICE AREAS
In order to limit the entry of bio-elements into Lake Sevan, special attention should be paid to the installation of local treatment plants in thousands of legal and illegally constructed public catering establishments operating in coastal areas, such as restaurants, hotels and other service areas.
3.WASTEWATER REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS
The volume of industry is increasing year by year, about 10-15% of the region's GDP. Industrial wastewater is discharged into a drainage network without treatment, and from there to the Lake Sevan basin.
About 11.6% of the agricultural lands of Sevan RBD are arable lands. In 2017, 30,000 hectares of arable land were cultivated in the Sevan basin. It is estimated that 44% of agricultural crops in the RBM are cereals. Most of the cultivated lands are located in Masrik, Gavaraget Argitchi river basins. According to the information received from Gegharkunik region, in 2017, 20,000 tons of mineral fertilizers were used for agricultural crops in the river basin. Fertilizers were used in permanent arable lands. Approximately 8,000-10,000 hectares of arable land are cultivated annually with fertilizers. There is no data on organic fertilizers used in the basin. About 2,000 kg of mineral fertilizer was used for 1 hectare.
Manure is one of the pressures on the water resources of Sevan RBD. Manure, washed with surface water, penetrates into groundwater resources, which leads to increased concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic compounds in the water. Due to the prevalence of pastures and climatic conditions, cattle breeding in this area has always been a traditional branch of agriculture. It is especially developed in Masrik, Argitchi, Gavaraget and Martuni river basins. After the collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent economic crisis, the total number of livestock in the Sevan RBD decreased significantly. However, in recent years there has been an increase in the number of livestock. Basin analysis shows that the number of animals is correlated with the total inorganic nitrogen concentrations. The highest concentrations were observed in Masrik, Gavaraget, Martuni and Vardenis river basins of Sevan RBM. Summing up the situation, the use of fertilizers in the agricultural sector, emissions from scattered sources (such as mineral fertilizers and manure) are significant. Livestock breeding has a significant pressure on the quality of Sevan's water resources. In particular, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) can contribute to the eutrophication of surface waters. In addition, their emissions have a significant impact on the state of Lake Sevan ecosystem. As a result, their load was estimated at 85.0 tons of phosphorus and 18.6 tons of inorganic nitrogen per year. The phosphorus load emitted from fish farms was not estimated.
Phototrophic Microorganisms, Cyanobacteria and Micro-algae
During the summer, the flowering process of Lake Sevan poses serious problems for the environment, restricting the mass growth of phototrophic microorganisms (cyanobacteria and micro-algae).
The use of water for drinking, irrigation, and other technical purposes. The entry of uncontrolled organic and waste (sewage, industrial wastewater, etc.) into Lake Sevan promotes prosperity.
The huge biomass of algae, which is formed in the conditions of abundant wastewater and favorable temperatures, becomes an additional source of pollution of the lake with organic matter, during the process of which degradation of oxygen conditions and disturbance of normal ecosystem (slow growth of fish and other animals and death).
The project is planned to start with the solution of the problem of drainage of commercial companies in the Lake Sevan basin, in the next stage solving the problem of cleaning all the sewage of the Lake Sevan basin. The successful experience is planned to be spread in all settlements of Armenia.
Project Implementation Steps:
1. Use of septic systems,
2. Water filtration
3. Storage of manure
4. Application of organic fertilizers
Septic systems are the best alternative to sewage, which does not discharge sewage into rivers or groundwater but collects in septic tanks. Septic wells are emptied, cleaned or filtered at regular intervals.
Bacterial Treatment of Sewage
Bacterial processing is carried out with the help of biological filler, which is an ideal combination of biologically active enzymes of microorganisms. It minimizes the need for garbage collection and it is ecologically clean and safe for the environment.
The biofilter provides mechanical, absorbent, physical, and biological filtration of wastewater.
Our biofilters treat both domestic wastewater and water contaminated with toxic or semi-toxic waste.
The biofilter provides four-stage filtering:
• Mechanical solid waste disposal
• Microbiological: cleaning with bacteria;
• Physical: elimination of all bacteria, settling of micro-inclusions
• zeolite filtration - absorption cleansing.
Non-recyclable waste residues, solid waste, as well as from operation. The removed biofilters are used in an ecologically clean way. Decommissioned biofilters are recycled and used either in the production of cement or as fertilizer.
Ecologically Clean Fertilizer
Biofertilizer anaerobic organic matter
It is a fertilizer obtained by fermentation, the use of which has a number of advantages. It contributes to the soil improving the structural condition and increasing fertility. The ecologically clean crop is obtained from soil enriched with biofertilizer without any harmful features. Biofertilizer is incomparable
It is effective and safe from other fertilizers. It does not contain harmful bacteria, chemicals, does not have pathogenic microflora, does not require an adaptation period, as well as makes the nutrients and useful substances in the soil durable.
OUR QUARTERLY FILTERS ARE ABLE TO CLEAN LAKE SEVAN FROM BLUE-GREEN ALGAE
A pilot water treatment program has already been implemented in the Kasakh community. Within the framework of the project, a filter module was designed and built, and water purification was accomplished without the use of chemicals.
Our competitive advantages are:
- Low price / high quality,
- Armenian producer,
- local resource, from invention to product,
- Use of only environmentally friendly materials,
- Utilization of all materials used.
The program aims to construct a boat, which will be running in the lake to catch blue-green algae and clean the lake water. By the way, only this part of the program has not experimented yet.
NATURAL RESOURCES OF RA
Many scientific centers around the world are working to create low-cost and harmless absorbers for similar water treatment. Natural adsorbents are among the low-cost and harmless absorbers.
Armenia is rich in mineral adsorbents - zeolites, diatomites, trepelles, perlites, clays, etc. Recycling these adsorbents produces targeted sorbents for the uptake and removal of cyanobacteria from the aquatic environment.
In Armenia, there are all the preconditions for obtaining the necessary sorbents to clean flourishing lakes and pools and organize their production.
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